Woolly Saints – The Festival of St Blaise 1 – Medieval

Holy Days 

Holy Days (latin feria, later corrupted to fair) dedicated to named Saints have been a common event since the inception of the Christian Church. Originally their function was the veneration of the named Saint, perhaps with a special mass or blessing, feast or pageant or pilgrimage to the site of the Saint’s relics, with communities making a special effort, to gather and worship. It is worth noting that there was literally at least one Saint’s Day every day of the year,  during this period, Blaise sharing his day with with St Margaret of England, Patron Saint of the Dying; an early Cistercian Nun, related to St Thomas Beckett (Farmer 1978), and St Werburga of Mercia, Patron Saint of Chester; daughter of a Mercian King, who became a Benedictine Abbess, (Bridgett 1985) (Chester tourist); according to the calendar at The Medieval Combat Society.

The holy days were a celebration of:

  1. Specific events in  Christ’s life – Christmas and Easter,
  2. The change of seasons, gratitude for a good harvest, blessing of the land pre planting crops
  3. Patron saints linked to their occupation, community or Kingdom.

Fasts, Feasts and Festivals

Major Christian holy days were preceded by fasts where no meat could be eaten – Lent and Advent. – and ended with celebratory feasts for all. Peasants would dine at their Lord’s table, and have time off from all but essential work. The various merchant, trade and religious guilds would hold special religious services, sponsor feasts for their members and the local poor, and entertain the community with pageants and mystery or morality plays. Depending on the Feast, Priests might bless animals, land, tools of the trade or buildings to enhance productivity and profitability.

A Medieval Market http://www.richardiii.net/2_3_0_riii_leadership.php#

The content of the Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs to 1516 (Letters 2013), shows that the majority of fairs were held on or over the festival of a saint, the majority being founded in the reigns of Kings John and Henry III. Fairs were taxable and hence in the Kings gift, so needed to be granted, with fines being payable for “unlicensed” events. The Church, being financially shrewd, seems to have exploited the opportunity for income presented by these gatherings. by seeking Royal franchises to establish markets in church grounds.  (Medieval Life and Times). The secular community also saw the business opportunities presented by such gathering and local lords or guilds would also apply for Royal franchises for fairs or by claiming they had been held in perpetuity (Letters 2013). A future post, examining the foundation of fairs and markets in more depth, will explore the local and political tensions this could create. The majority of fairs seem to have been held between April and early December and could last from 1 to 15 days. (Letters 2013) They also provided opportunities to purchase goods, not commonly availalbe locally. Some fairs became specialised, such as the fleece or animal fairs, which will be explored in more depth at a later date.

The Feast of St Blaise

Holidays, Church and Feasts

The Feast of St Blaise, was a public holiday (Koenig 2012) and provided wool workers with a break from their daily lives, spent washing, combing, carding, spinning, weaving or knitting, fulling, tenting, buying and selling wool. They could reflect on and give thanks for the good fortune their Saint granted them in Church and enjoy leisure time with friends or fellow guild members. A feature of the High Mass on St Blaise’s day was the offering of a special taper (Williams 1998), which is likely to be the precursor to the blessing of the throat with two crossed candles (Matz 2000).

A modern depiction of a procession of St Blaise http://dedication1315.org.uk/religious-processions-giants-and-beasts/

There could have been a pageant, play or feast. Guild members might parade an effigy of St Blaise or a Ram, through the streets, (although the only evidence for this is the modern day parade in St Blazey, Cornwall), to and / or from the parish or guild church, where the priest might also bless the tools of the trade. He might also travel to farms or wool warehouses blessing the sheep or fleeces. Priestly blessings of agricultural land and craftsmen’s tools were an important ritual in medieval life (BBC TV, Tudor Monastery Farm). Once the religious part of the event was over, a feast might be held and whilst there are no specific references to its content, lamb or mutton would celebrate the connection to sheep. Feasts were provided by the local Lord in the country and the woolworkers guild(s), in the towns. Guilds were organisations of master craftsmen, serving a wide range of purposes including quality control, social support and preservation of the mysteries of the craft. Guild members were expected to contribute financially throughout the year, with a portion of these funds allocated to feasting (Wikipedia).

St Blaise Fairs

1222 – Synod of Osney, convened by Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Langton, the son of a Lincolnshire Farmer, stated that all woolcombers should not work on St Blaise’s Day – with wool being such a big industry, this implied that most rural people and many townspeople had a holiday. According to Koenig (2012), women caught spinning on this day would have their distaff confiscated and burned. This laid the way open for the development of fairs.

1235 – Fair of Blaise the martyr (3 Feb); granted by King Henry III to the Priory of Boxgrove (CChR, 1226–57, p. 211). Included a mandate to the  Sheriff of Sussex to proclaim the fair and cause it to be held. Letters (2013). According to the Calendar of the Charter Rolls of Henry III, this fair ran over three days:

The prior of Boxgrove has a charter for a fair at Boxgrove, on the vigil, the feast and the morrow of St Blaise the Martyr” (Deputy Keeper of the Records, 1908).

1447 – John Lowe, Bishop of Rochester held a fair on St Blaise’s Day (3 Feb); recorded 20 Jul , held by John Lowe, bp of Rochester (CChR, 1427–1516, p. 87).(Letters 2013). Lysons (1796) notes that this fair was held within the manor (p307 fn1). There is also a holy well, with healing waters from a chalybeate spring,  dedicated to St Blaise in Bromley, which Lysons suggests had an oratory attached pre reformation. Pixyledpublications (2013) states that local lore suggests that the parish church was once dedicated to St Blaise, but the earliest documentation suggesting a link between Bromley and St Blaise is that of the grant of the fair by Henry VI in 1447.

Clothing of Bocksten Man http://www.museumhalland.se/bockstensmannen/kladerna/

What Was Sold At A St Blaise Fair?

Whilst its not possible to establish exactly what was sold at these fairs, it is possible to made an educated guess, based on what is known of farming practices and day to day life. Firstly, the season suggests that sheep or fleece were unlikely to be sold, unless the fair specialised in selling castrated male yearling lambs that were good for producing wool and meat. Ewes would be waiting to lamb in late February and shearing was in June (Staples 1999). Secondly we must assume the roads were well maintained to facilitate travel, so perhaps there was a pilgrim trail, to bring the customers along? Canterbury held relics of St Blaise, but the distance between it and both Bromley (56 miles) and Boxgrove (98 miles) would suggest that neither of these fairs would cash in on this domestic pilgrimage, as there was no way they could reach  Canterbury for the Feast. However Morrison (2002) notes that Easter pilgrimages to Rome often started in January or February, so could these people, perhaps walking to Dover for passage to France be the prospective customers?  If so, perhaps these St Blaise Fairs, specialised in selling woollen clothing for pilgrims? A full outfit was discovered in Sweden, worn by the “Bocksten Man”, a 14th C murder victim, discovered in a peat bog (The Local SE 2006). During winter, agricultural work was limited (Staples) and so more time was available for indoor work, possibly spinning, weaving, and tailoring previously fulled cloth.

Bonfires

Bonfires seem to be a feature of St Blaise’s Day events, Williams (1998) states that they were lit on the hills at night. When first considered, it could be thought that the pronounciation of Blaise sounds like the English word Blaze, meaning fire. However it appears these bonfires took place across Europe, possibly because this was the time of year that stubble was burned. This custom might have originated in Pagan times and is still celebrated in the town of Fuiggi, Italy; the practice having saved the town from being sacked by a Papal army, who assumed that the flames meant the town had already been attacked by their allies (Fiuggi Turismo Convention and Visitors Bureau 2014)

 

References and Bibliography

Anon (no date) Medieval Life and Times – Medieval Fairs [online] Available http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-life/medieval-fairs.htm Accessed 13/11/15

Bridgett, Ronald W (1985) The Life of St Werburgh: Princess of Mercia, The Parish and Church Wardens of the Parish of St Werburgh, Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent [online] Available: http://www.ourladyandstwerburgh.co.uk/the-legend-of-st-werburgh.html accessed 4.11.2015

Burns P (1998) revision Butler’s Live of the Saints, Full Edition, February. Burns and Oats (Tunbridge Wells) pp33-4

Chester Tourist dot com (no date) The Shrine of St Werburgh [online] Available: http://www.chestertourist.com/Werburgh.htm Accessed 4.11.2015

Farmer, David Hugh. (1978). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford University Press. In St Margaret of England [online] available: http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=4475 accessed 4.11.2015

Fiuggi Turismo Convention and Visitors Bureau (2014) Popular Festivals -St Blaise/ Stuzza [online] Available: http://www.visitfiuggi.eu/en/popular-festivals/ Accessed 13.11.15

Koenig, C (2012) Recalling the Cult of Bishop Blaze, Oxford Times [online] available: http://www.oxfordtimes.co.uk/leisure/history_heritage/history/9506230.Recalling_the_cult_of_Bishop_Blaze/ accessed 11/11/2015

Letters, S. (2013) Online Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 <http://www.history.ac.uk/cmh/gaz/gazweb2.html&gt;:

Lysons Rev D (1796) The Environs of London, Counties of Herts, Essex and Kent Cadle & Davies (London) [online] Available https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LPxBAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 13.11.15

Matz T (2000) Catholic Online – St Blaise [online] Available: http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=28 Accessed 6.11.15

Morrison SS (2002) Women Pilgrims in Late Medieval England Routledge (London) [online] Available https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=yPqFAgAAQBAJ&dq=Medieval+travel+february+England Accessed 13.11.15

Pixyledpublications (2013) Holy and Healing Wells – A Well for February, St Blaise’s Well, Bromley, Kent [online] Available https://insearchofholywellsandhealingsprings.wordpress.com/2013/02/19/a-well-for-february-st-blaises-well-bromley-kent/ Accessed 13.11.15

Staples A (1999) The Medieval Farming Year v1.0 [online] Available: http://www.witheridge-historical-archive.com/medieval-year.htm Accessed 13.11.15

The Local SE (2006) Swedish Bog Man, Murdered 700 years ago [online] Available http://www.thelocal.se/20060124/2920 Accessed 13.11.15

The Medieval Combat Society (undated) Historical Information, Medieval Calendar [online] available http://www.themcs.org/calendar.htm accessed 4.11.2015

Wikipedia (2015) Guild [online] Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guild accessed 6/11/15

Williams B (1998) St Blaise’s Well, Bromley, Kent [online] Available:  http://people.bath.ac.uk/liskmj/living-spring/sourcearchive/ns6/ns6bw1.htm Accessed 11.11.15

Woolly Saints – The Festival of St Blaise 1 – Medieval

Woolly Saints – The Cult of St Blaise 1 – Wool Churches of St Blaise

Role of Saints in Society

Medieval Saints primarily had the role of intercessors, however their veneration was also a major part of religious life. Patron Saints both provided an intercessor for an identified group and generated income for the Church; the group who venerated the Saint would give money in his or her name, to improve their chances of salvation, and as doctrine developed, reduce their time in purgatory. For the wealthy founding a monastic house, church or chantry chapel was therefore common, with the nobility also having private chapels built within their homes. Once built, the founder or his heirs usually chose the Saint the building was designed to venerated, perhaps of links with their birthdate, family, profession or major income source or to favour a monastic order, in return for prayers for the souls of themselves, their family, overlords etc. We can use the cult of St Blaise to explore how this worked in practice, starting with the dedication of churches and private chapels.

Importing St Blaise

From the evidence discovered Blaise’s arrival in England was linked to the Crusades. He was the Patron Saint of the city state of Ragusa, now Dubrovnik and it is thought that the unknown knight who founded St Blasius, Shanklin IOW and a little later, Sir Stephen de Haccombe, founder of St Blaise’s, Haccombe, Devon,  visited his shrine on their return from duties in the Holy Land.

His Cult was  established in Northern England, by Bernard, the deposed Archbishop of Rasuga, who met Richard I, during his return from the 3rd Crusade. Richard  survived a shipwreck and was washed ashore at Lokrum, near Ragusa, in 1192. To give thanks to God for his survival, Richard funded the construction of the great Cathedral of St Mary 7 St Blaise, Ragusa and repairs to the Benedictine Monastery Church in Lokrum (Penman 2011). Bernard later fled to England to seek Richard’s protection, when he fell foul of his flock, eventually becoming part of King John’s court. After the Pope appointed his replacement in Ragusa in 1203, John appointed Bernard as Bishop of Carlisle, a poor and difficult See, previously vacant for sometime (Crosby 1994). It is thought that Bernard talked much of St Blaise, to his flock and members of the Royal Court, encouraging his cult to grow in wool rich England.

 

The Churches of St Blaise

Three of the four English churches of St Blaise, could be considered “wool churches” , as their construction was partially or wholly founded on fortunes built from wool. The churches were founded between the 12th & 14th Centuries, and surprisingly are all outside the traditionally recognised “Wool Church” areas of East Anglia and the Cotswolds. They are all listed buildings at Grade 2 or above. Unlike the traditional wool churches, founded by merchants or guilds, 3 of the St Blaise churches were all founded by individuals: returning Crusaders, thankful for their survival and  a Bishop, descended from farming stock. The final church, founded by a long forgotten individual, was remodeled by the local Abbey, when it became a Parish church. This last example is similar to the foundation of the great wool churches, by wool merchants or wool related guilds. Building of these ceasing between the Reformation and the English Civil war, due to the decline of the wool trade. The 3 churches founded by local families / Bishop, also provided an opportunity to demonstrate their wealth and status within their community and beyond.

St Blaise, Milton, Berkshire

“St Blaise church, Milton – geograph.org.uk – 64067” by Dennis Jackson. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Commons

The Manor of Milton was held by Abingdon Abbey from 956, when the local Thane, gifted lands given to him by King Edwy. Abingdon was a Benedictine monastery and the 6th richest in England at the dissolution. Prior to  The earliest ecclesiastical building was a 10th Century chapel. The community at this time was a chapelry of the parish of Sutton Courtenay (Page & Ditchfield 1924) . A chapelry is a community within the bounds of a larger parish, with a chapel, subsidiary to the Parish Church. This allowed parishoners to worship locally, where the journey, to the Parish Church was long. The Abbey demolished the Saxon church and built the current St Blaise in the 14th Century, some parts have survived the later Victorian improvements.

Abbeys were granted manors by Kings or nobles, to provide an income, they were expected to farm the land themselves, or use lay brothers, bailiffs or tenants-in-chief (lesses) to manage smaller parcels of land, known as Granges. The majority of the work would be undertaken by the local peasantry, who would sublet small parcels of land for crops (heriots) and graze animals on common land; the unfree villein being expected to also work a set number of days on the Lord’s lands. They would then derive income from the land through rents and produce. In return they were  expected to pray for the Royal or Noble family in perpetuity and provide a certain number of knights or their financial equivalent to the King (knight’s fees) as required. So the Manor of Milton would have been managed by lesses on behalf of the monks. Additional income would be obtained from the lesse by charging for the use of the fulling mill to finish cloth woven in the village and to trade at the various markets and fairs (Manco 2013) (Ponstan 1972).

As the area has been noted since Domesday as a rich agricultural area, producing a wide range of crops and having extensive meadowlands, the Abbey was fortunate in its gift.  By the C14th, the meadowlands were used to farm sheep. The main industry of the village became wool, with fleeces washed in the local Ginge Brook (Oxford Diocesian Guild of Bellringers 2009). Abingdon, with its Abbey run markets, fairs and fulling mill, dominated the industry and gave local wool merchants the opportunity to become prosperous. The area was a reasonable distance from Southampton too, which facilitated the export of  finished cloth. Today, the Parish Church is perhaps the only testament to this rich history:

The former woollen industry is commemorated by the dedication of the church to St. Blaise, the patron saint of wool-combers, and also by the Tadpole revel at Milton Hill on the day following the village feast on the third Sunday after Trinity, ‘Tadpole’ being probably a corruption of tod, or cleaned, wool. (A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 4

Photos of the church are few and far between, but for a look inside please visit “My Grave Places”, the blog owner, Bill Nichols has taken some beautiful images

St Blaise Church, St Blazey, Cornwall

St Blaise, St Blazey Source:http://www.cornwall-opc.org/Par_new/a_d/blazey_st.php

Although the site of a pre-existing  settlement, the town adopted the name of its then new church, founded by the Bishop of Exeter, Walter De Stapledon, in 1309. There is disagreement about the prosperity of the wool industry in medieval Cornwall, with the parish history claiming that “by the 15th  Century, when the existing parish church was built, (improving on De Stapledon’s building), the area was the centre of the local woollen industry”. However both Ryder (1964) & the Cornwall County Council historian disagree, claiming that prior to 1600, Cornish Wool was of poor quality, until selective breeding promoted a healthy wool industry.

An investigation of  de Stapledon’s past and the main income source of his diocese indicates a possible reason for dedicating his newly founded church to St Blaise. De Stapledon’s parents were Devon farming stock, from the wool rich lands of East Devon, which supported the greatest number of  sheep  of all the divisions of Devon and Cornwall (Gladwin 2015). His family, were not wealthy but were ambitious and  found a way to send Walter to Oxford. He then became Vicar of Aveton Gifford, Devon, before becoming a Professor of Canon Law at Oxford and Chaplain to Pope Gregory. He entered Royal service as Edward II’s Lord High Treasurer and was also appointed Bishop of Exeter (Britannica Biography). He was one of the wealthiest Bishops in the country, in part due to the income from the production of wool and wool cloth on his many manors. The income from one Manor  – Chudleigh – in 1308, illustrates this:

“Rental of Manor £17, Income from fulling mill 20s to See of Exeter”. (Register of the Bishop of Exeter)

If we assume he could earn this from all his manors in Devon, Cornwall and other counties, then add the percentage owed from the sale of finished cloth and the income of any directly managed granges, we then begin to understand why he was so wealthy

St Blaise, Medieval Stained Glass C1309, East Window Source:https://www.cornishstainedglass.org.uk/mgsmed/church.xhtml?churchid=206

This income was on the whole well spent, greatly improving Exeter Cathedral and founding Exeter College, Oxford, where he endowed a series of places for poor boys of potential, from his manors of Devon and Cornwall (Chudleigh History Society). However he was not sufficiently politically astute to avoid being caught up in the invasion of Queen Isabella and the deposition of Edward II. A London mob took exception to him spying on Isabella during her time in France. He tried to reach the Sanctuary of St Paul’s Cathedral, London and was beheaded with a bread knife on the its steps.

The people of St Blazey still celebrate St Blaise’s day by parading a wicker effigy of the Bishop and a ram through the streets, something to be explored in more depth in a future post about festivals. (Cornish Guardian). Blaise’s stained glass image was saved from the destruction of the Reformation and  is thought to date from de Stapledon’s original church (Mattingly & Swift 2009). Other roundels in the window depict the lamb and woolcomb.

 

St Blaise, Haccombe, Devon

Haccombe Church St Blaise Church building http://www.shaldonchurches.org.uk/linesblaise.jpg

This small, 13th century church, in the Exeter Diocese, approximately 15 miles from the Bishop’s Palace in Chudleigh, was remodelled as an Archpresbytery, in the early 14th century.

The original church was built in the C1230, by Sir Stephen De Haccombe, a crusader knight, who died C1243  and his heir Sir John Lercedekne (husband to Sir Stephen’s daughter). The  de Haccombes were Norman French and were granted the manor by William I.  Sir Stephen, who spent 5 years in the Holy Land in the army of the Bishop of Exeter, Walter de Branscombe, swore to build a parish church, should he return safely home (Oliver 1846). His homeward journey, took him to Rugasa where he visited the Cathedral of  Mary & St Blaise and it is thought that he named the church in its honour (Jones 2014). With his manors located in a wool rich area, dedicating a church to the Patron Saint of Wool combers, would have seemed sensible.  The church, is small but has a wealth of tombs and brasses of the de Haccombe family, to view them please visit the ipernity website

The improvement work, to create an Archpresbytery – a chantry of priests overseen by an Archpriest,  was approved and  started before de Stapledon’s death and is modeled on the Archpresbytery at Whitchurch (Stapledon reg folio 165).

Tomb of Sir Stephen de Haccombe, founder http://www.wissensdrang.com/stabb109.htm#110a

A living was provided for 6, salaried chantry priests plus the archpriest, also the parish priest and 2 lay clerks appointed as assistants and general servants (Stabb 1908 -16). The Archpresbytery  was endowed with the tithes of Haccombe and a couple of Cornish manors, belonging to Sir Stephen (Oliver 1846). The priests were requested to pray for the souls of the late Sir Stephen, John Grandisson – Bishop of Exeter, Sir John and his family and the Earls of Devon. They also assisted the Archpriest in his parish duties.

Today the church is part of the benefice of Shaldon, a parish encompassing 4 villages and hamlets, of which. Haccombe is the smallest, the village having been cleared by a later manorial occupant as it spoiled his view.

St Blasius and St John the Baptist, Shanklin, Isle of Wight

St Blasius Church, Old Shanklin, Isle of Wight Attribution: John Salmon St_Blasius,_Shanklin_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1151509.jpg ‎

This church was founded during the reign of King Stephen (1135 – 54) as the private manorial chapel of Shanklin and dedicated to St John the Baptist. At over 850 years old it is the oldest of the 4 churches dedicated to St Blaise. However, the reason and exact dates for its later dedication to St Blasius (latin form of Blaise) are reported by the church historian as being something of a mystery. It remained in  family ownership until 1835, when it was donated to the community, as the new Parish Church and modernised, stripping away much of the antiquity (Page 1912). It is currently part of the Diocese of Portsmouth. Whilst there is a crypt, the church website reports that access is blocked by the renovations.

It is thought that The Chapel was originally founded by a probable descendent of  a man named Gozelin, who held the manor at Domesday. This later family were possibly known as D’Insula or D’Lisle – both meaning “Of the Island”. The manor, along with others in the vicinity of Southampton, on the mainland, was held in the Honour of Carisbrook (Woodward et al 1861). St Blasius first  enters the records in 1170, when a chapel was endowed that owed fealty to the Mother Church in Brading .This suggests that the theory mooted by the Church History (website), linking St Blasius to Richard I’s shipwreck,  some 22 years later, is unfortunately unlikely to be right. (St Blasius Old Parish Church, Timeline). This mysterious knight, reputed to have carved a Crusaders Cross into the stone doorpost of the church, either joined King Louis VII’s army for the 2nd Crusade of 1144 or served in or supported one of the military orders stationed in the Holy Land e.g, The Knights Hospitaller or the Knights Templar (Wikipedia, Military Orders). There were a variety of land and sea routes to the Holy Land, so its quite possible that he stopped in Rasuga and gave thanks to St Blaise’s but the truth is sadly lost in the mists of time.

St Blasius Church, Shanklin IOW, North Window http://www.hampshirechurchwindows.co.uk/iow/churches/ssb8.JPG

We do know that by the early 14th Century, his descendants  the D’Lisle’s of Wootton, who also held the manor of Shanklin, were established as one of the Islands leading families, holding the constableship of Carisbrooke Castle, under Edward II (Davenport Adams 1864).  St Blaise remained in favour, according to the historical timeline of the Church, as by 1367,  he was the  Patron Saint of the Lisle family sanctuary within the church:

1367 was the date of the presentation of the “Chapel of St. Blays of Shanklyng Capella Sancti Johannes Baptisti de Shynling.”

This would confirm a theory in the  Church history suggesting that either an altar in a side chapel or chantry chapel could have been dedicated to St Blaise, his name somehow surviving down the centuries. He is commemorated today in the North Window, a modern depiction, designed by Martin Evans of Glory Art Glass Sandown.

 

References and Bibliography

Chudleigh History Group (2012) Timeline of the Bishop’s Palace [online] Available http://www.chudleighhistorygroup.com/bishops-palace.html Accessed 29.10.15

Cornish Guardian (2015) Celebrating St Blaise in St Blazey [online] Available http://www.cornishguardian.co.uk/Celebrating-St-Blaise-St-Blazey/story-25972411-detail/story.html accessed 30.10.15

Crosby EU (1994) Bishop and Chapter in 12th Century England – A Study of the Mensa Episcopalis, Cambridge University Press 1994 [Online] Available:  https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cmXB_Dg8inUC&pg=PA110&dq=Bernard+Archbishop+of+Ragusa+England&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAGoVChMI3-mE7YbyyAIVA-wUCh1UOQmI#v=onepage&q=Bernard%20Archbishop%20of%20Ragusa%20England&f=false accessed 2.11.2015

Davenport-Adams WH (1864) Nelson’s Handbook to the Isle of Wight T Nelson and Sons, London [online] Available https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=NYIuAAAAMAAJ&dq=D%27Lisle+Carisbrooke&source=gbs_navlinks_s  Accessed 2.11.2015

English Heritage (1966),  Listing of the Church of St  Blaise, Milton, [online] Available: http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/en-250018-church-of-st-blaise-milton-oxfordshire#.VjIlGbfhBdi Accessed 29.10.15

Friends of Abingdon (no date) Abbey Buildings Overview [Online] Available http://www.friendsofabingdon.org.uk/abbey-buildings/ Accessed 29.10.15

Gladwin DD (2015) Average numbers of demesne livestock.  c.1300   (figures all +  or – 5 years.) (collated from Pipe rolls and Manorial Returns) Unpublished.

Jones, N (2014) Haccombe St Blaise Devonshire Magazine (Oct 2014) [Online] Available  http://issuu.com/trouty/docs/haccombe_st_blaise/2?e=1521368/9785514, accessed 30.10.2015

King, RJ (1903) Handbook to the Cathedral’s of England, Southern Division IN Britannia Biographies [online] http://www.britannia.com/bios/wstapledon.html, accessed 30.10.15

Manco (2013) Medieval Manors and Their Records [Online] Available http://www.buildinghistory.org/manors.shtml accessed 3.11.15

Mattingley J & Swift MJ (2009) Pre-Dissolution Stained Glass in Cornwall, Vidimus (vol 31), July / Aug 2009 [online] Available: http://vidimus.org/issues/issue-31/features/#pre-dissolution-stained-glass-in-cornwall Accessed 30.10.15

Oxford Diocesian Guild of Bellringers (2009) St Blaise Milton [Online] Available http://odg.org.uk/history/onb/more/u485924.html, Accessed 3.11.15

Penmann SK (2011) Richard and Ragusa [online blog] http://sharonkaypenman.com/blog/?p=275 Accessed 2.11.2015

Ponstan MM (1972) The Medieval Economy and Society Pelican (Middlesex)

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Woolly Saints – The Cult of St Blaise 1 – Wool Churches of St Blaise